Taxonomy: Bacteria; Proteobacteria; Epsilonproteobacteria; Campylobacterales; Campylobacteraceae;


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Campylobacter jejuni

I. Organism Information

A. Taxonomy Information

1. Species

a. Campylobacter jejuni

i. Taxonomy ID: 197

ii. Description:

Campylobacter jejuni is a member of the epsilon group of proteobacteria and is Gram-negative, microaerophilic and motile. C. jejuni is the leading cause of bacterial food-borne diarrheal disease throughout the world (1). Humans acquire the organisms by eating undercooked chicken or drinking contaminated milk and water. During the course of infection, hosts show symptoms of fever, cramps, and bloody diarrhea. Campylobacter is an invasive pathogen that penetrates the lining of the small intestine. Upon entry, it excretes toxins that destroy the gut mucosa.

Public health awareness of Campylobacter infections has evolved over more than a century. In 1886, Escherich observed organisms resembling campylobacters in stool samples of children with diarrhea. In 1913, McFaydean and Stockman identified campylobacters. In 1957, King described the isolation of related Vibrio from blood samples of children with diarrhea, and in 1972, clinical microbiologists in Belgium first isolated campylobacters from stool samples of patients with diarrhea. The development of selective growth media in the 1970s permitted more laboratories to test stool specimens for Campylobacter, which were soon recognized as common human pathogens (2).

iii. Variants

Campylobacter jejuni RM1221
Taxonomy ID: 195099
Parent: Campylobacter jejuni

Campylobacter jejuni subsp. doylei
Taxonomy ID: 32021
Parent: Campylobacter jejuni

Campylobacter jejuni subsp. jejuni NCTC 11168
Taxonomy ID: 192222
Parent: Campylobacter jejuni

B. Lifecycle and Morphology

1. One stage

a. Shape:

Vibriod, slender, 0.2-0.5 μm by 0.5-5 μm, may have more than one helical turn. They may also appear S-shaped or gull-wing-shaped when two cells form short chains. Cells in old cutures may form spherical forms (coccoid bodies) (3).

b. Picture:

SEM of Campylobacter jejuni
SEM image of Campylobacter jejuni with size bar by Janice Carr, CDC

C. Genome Summary

1. Genome of Campylobacter jejuni

a. Chromosome of Campylobacter jejuni RM1221

i. Genbank Accession Number: NC_003912

ii. Size: 1,777,831 bp

b. Chromosome of Campylobacter jejuni subsp. jejuni NCTC 11168

i. Genbank Accession Number: NC_002163
ii. Size: 1,641,481 bp

c. Plasmid pCJ419

i. Genbank Accession Number: NC_004997

ii. Size: 4,013 bp

d. Plasmid pVir

i. Genbank Accession Number: NC_005012
ii. Size: 37,468 bp
iii. Description: This is a circular plasmid of Campylobacter jejuni strain 81-176 and has a GC content of 26%. A total of 83% of the plasmid represented coding information, and all but 2 of the 54 predicted open reading frames were encoded on the same DNA strand. Seven genes were found to be orthologs of type IV secretion proteins found in Helicobacter pylori. Seven other pVir-encoded proteins showed significant similarities to proteins encoded by the plasticity zones of either H. pylori J99 or 26695. Mutational analyses of 19 plasmid genes identified 5 additional genes that affect in vitro invasion of intestinal epithelial cells (4).

e. Plasmid pTet

i. Genbank Accession Number: NC_006135
ii. Size: 45,205 bp

II. References

1.  Parkhill J, Wren BW, Mungall K, Ketley JM, Churcher C, Basham D, Chillingworth T, Davies RM, Feltwell T, Holroyd S, Jagels K, Karlyshev AV, Moule S, Pallen MJ, Penn CW, Quail MA, Rajandream MA, Rutherford KM, van Vliet AH, Whitehead S, Barrell BG. (2000) The genome sequence of the food-borne pathogen Campylobacter jejuni reveals hypervariable sequences. Nature 403(6770):665-668.

2.  Altekruse SF, Stern NJ, Fields PI, Swerdlow DL. (1999) Campylobacter jejuni—An Emerging Foodborne Pathogen. Emerging Infectious Diseases 5(1): 28-35.

3.  Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th edition. John G. Holt, Noel R. Krieg, Peter H.A. Sneath, James T. Staley, and Stanley T. Williams, editors. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins, 1994, p. 41

4.  Bacon DJ, Alm RA, Hu L, Hickey TE, Ewing CP, Batchelor RA, Trust TJ, Guerry P. (2002) DNA sequence and mutational analyses of the pVir plasmid of Campylobacter jejuni 81-176. Infect Immun. 70(11): 6242-6250.

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Campylobacter - Google News

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Survey shows decrease of campylobacter in UK fresh chicken - Food Safety News

Food Safety News

Survey shows decrease of campylobacter in UK fresh chicken
Food Safety News
The British Food Standards Agency on Wednesday published the latest results from its survey of campylobacter on fresh, shop-bought, United Kingdom-produced chickens, reporting a drop of almost 10 percent compared to 2016. Across the market, 6.5 ...
How to avoid campylobacter in pub
Chicken from Lidl more likely to contain food poisoning bug than those bought in M&SManchester Evening News
These supermarkets have the highest risk of food poisoning from chickenLiverpool Echo

all 8 news articles »

Citizen Science enlisted to fight Campylobacter Infections - (blog)

Citizen Science enlisted to fight Campylobacter Infections (blog)
The curiosity-inspiringly named ENIGMA project brings together researchers from all over the UK, including the University of East Anglia and the University of Liverpool, and is trying to understand the puzzling high number of Campylobacter infections ...

and more »

Half of chickens positive for Campylobacter FSA survey -

Half of chickens positive for Campylobacter FSA survey
Alex Neill, Which? managing director of home products and services, said it was encouraging to see overall levels of Campylobacter in chickens falling and major retailers meeting the FSA's target. However there is no room for complacency as the survey ...

and more »

Campylobacter follows the clues -

Campylobacter follows the clues
Campylobacter jejuni is a commensal bacterium that colonizes the intestinal tracts of avian species and other animals, but it is also an enteric pathogen in humans that causes diarrhoeal disease. C. jejuni can distinguish between different intestinal ...

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BioAust Health seeks partner for Campylobacter control product -

BioAust Health seeks partner for Campylobacter control product
Related tags: BioAust, Carcases, APVMA, Chicken gut, Tea-tree oil, Lemon-scented myrtle, Campylobacter, C. jejuni, Food poisoning, FSANZ, Bioactives, Contamination, Poultry, Freezing, Chlorine, Retail, Processor, Trial, Proof of concept, Log ...

Citizen scientists help infectious bacteria researchers - Science Daily


Citizen scientists help infectious bacteria researchers
Science Daily
The most common bacterial cause of diarrheal disease in the developed world is Campylobacter. There were approximately 700,000 cases in the UK in 2010 with around 200 deaths. The current annual UK cost of acute Campylobacter infection is around ...
Citizen scientists, boot socks help researchers study disease

all 2 news articles »

Akeso Biomedical Files TYPLEX Chelate Dossier to Reduce Campylobacter in EU Poultry - Business Wire (press release)

Akeso Biomedical Files TYPLEX Chelate Dossier to Reduce Campylobacter in EU Poultry
Business Wire (press release)
Akeso has shown that TYPLEXTM Chelate reduces the ability of pathogenic bacteria, such as Campylobacter jejuni, Salmonella spp., E. coli and Clostridium perfringens, to adhere to the intestinal lining of birds. Since the bacteria cannot attach, they ...

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IFST outlines the risks associated with foodborne Campylobacteriosis - New Food

New Food

IFST outlines the risks associated with foodborne Campylobacteriosis
New Food
Campylobacter is the most common bacteria causing human gastroenteritis in the world (1 of the 4 main causes of diarrheal diseases) and the most common cause of food poisoning in the UK. Campylobacteriosis is predicted to remain as one of the top 10 ...

Falling level of campylobacter in UK chicken - Irish Farmers Journal

Irish Farmers Journal

Falling level of campylobacter in UK chicken
Irish Farmers Journal
UK-produced chicken has seen the higher-risk level of campylobacter fall from a presence of 9.3% of samples to 6.5%. The Food Standards Agency (FSA) study looked at retail chickens in supermarkets and butchers. Retailers with the lowest level of the ...

Histamine in tuna, Norway tackles fraud and Campylobacter warning -

Histamine in tuna, Norway tackles fraud and Campylobacter warning
Related tags: Outbreak. Garciden, Opera o Tripoli, PVD, IACM, AECOSAN, Tuna, Histamine, Mattilsynet, Honey, Olive oil, Operation Opson, BVL, Hazelnut, Peanut, Cashew, Almond, SVS, Salmonella, Meat, Shrimp, Sodium tripolyphosphate, Species ...

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Virtual structural proteome: browse a table of all Campy proteins with entries or homologs in PDB

Campylobacter genome sequence annotation status: click numbers to browse lists of genes or subsystems

Strain annotated in NMPDR Genome size, bp Protein Encoding Genes (PEGs) Sort Named genes in subsystems Named genes not in subsystems Hypothetical genes in subsystems Hypothetical genes not in subsystems Subsystems RNAs
Campylobacter coli RM2228 1,860,666 1,965 925(45.8%) 608(30.1%) 26(1.3%) 459(22.7%) 270 56
Campylobacter concisus 13826 2,099,413 2,094 767(35.7%) 743(34.6%) 21(1.0%) 618(28.8%) 218 101
Campylobacter curvus 525.92 1,971,264 2,063 822(38.8%) 761(35.9%) 21(1.0%) 514(24.3%) 223 101
Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus 82-40 1,773,615 1,732 874(50.3%) 515(29.7%) 22(1.3%) 325(18.7%) 276 52
Campylobacter hominis ATCC BAA-381 1,714,951 1,744 681(39.0%) 490(28.0%) 15(0.9%) 561(32.1%) 232 55
Campylobacter jejuni RM1221 1,777,831 1,838 885(47.0%) 566(30.0%) 23(1.2%) 410(21.8%) 270 53
Campylobacter jejuni subsp. doylei 269.97 1,845,106 2,094 879(40.9%) 776(36.1%) 22(1.0%) 470(21.9%) 234 97
Campylobacter jejuni subsp. jejuni 260.94 1,657,846 1,718 907(51.4%) 580(32.8%) 27(1.5%) 252(14.3%) 259 102
Campylobacter jejuni subsp. jejuni 81-176 1,699,052 1,748 866(49.4%) 569(32.5%) 37(2.1%) 280(16.0%) 257 56
Campylobacter jejuni subsp. jejuni 84-25 1,671,624 1,749 916(51.0%) 592(32.9%) 25(1.4%) 264(14.7%) 262 51
Campylobacter jejuni subsp. jejuni CF93-6 1,676,304 1,758 918(50.8%) 604(33.4%) 24(1.3%) 260(14.4%) 260 51
Campylobacter jejuni subsp. jejuni HB93-13 1,694,788 1,712 875(51.0%) 558(32.5%) 27(1.6%) 257(15.0%) 260 63
Campylobacter jejuni subsp. jejuni NCTC 11168 1,641,481 1,633 866(52.9%) 538(32.9%) 25(1.5%) 208(12.7%) 272 101
Campylobacter lari RM2100 1,562,926 1,594 843(51.3%) 500(30.4%) 21(1.3%) 279(17.0%) 258 53
Campylobacter upsaliensis RM3195 1,773,834 1,930 881(44.5%) 542(27.4%) 22(1.1%) 534(27.0%) 267 51
Topic revision: r9 - 20 Jan 2009 - 10:21:24 - TWiki Guest
Notice to NMPDR Users - The NMPDR BRC contract has ended and bacterial data from NMPDR has been transferred to PATRIC (, a new consolidated BRC for all NIAID category A-C priority pathogenic bacteria. NMPDR was a collaboration among researchers from the Computation Institute of the University of Chicago, the Fellowship for Interpretation of Genomes (FIG), Argonne National Laboratory, and the National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA) at the University of Illinois. NMPDR is funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, under Contract HHSN266200400042C. Banner images are copyright © Dennis Kunkel.