Taxonomy: Bacteria; Firmicutes; Bacilli; Bacillales; Staphylococcaceae;

Staphylococcus

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Staphylococcus aureus

I. Organism Information

A. Taxonomy Information

1. Species

a. Staphylococcus aureus

i. Taxonomy ID: 1280

ii. Description:

Staphylococcus aureus is a Gram-positive pathogen that causes a wide range of diseases, and is becoming increasingly resistant to antibiotics (1). These resistant bacteria are called methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, or MRSA. S. aureus is responsible for a variety of ailments, including carbuncles, food poisoning, wound and medical device-related infections, bacteremia, necrotizing pneumonia, and endocarditis (2). S. aureus forms a fairly large yellow colony on rich medium and is hemolytic on blood agar. Staphylococci are facultative anaerobes that ferment glucose to lactate. The bacteria are catalase-positive and oxidase-negative. S. aureus can grow at a temperature range of 15 to 45 degrees and at NaCl concentrations as high as 15 percent. Almost all strains of S. aureus produce the enzyme coagulase. S. aureus should always be considered a potential pathogen (3).

To contribute more information, please contact help@nmpdr.org

iii. Variants

Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus
Taxonomy ID: 46170

Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus COL
Taxonomy ID: 93062
Parent: Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus

Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus MRSA252
Taxonomy ID: 282458
Parent: Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus

Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus MSSA476
Taxonomy ID: 282459
Parent: Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus

Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus MW2
Taxonomy ID: 196620

Parent: Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus

Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus Mu50
Taxonomy ID: 158878
Parent: Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus

Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus N315
Taxonomy ID: 158879
Parent: Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus

B. Lifecycle and Morphology

1. (To contribute to this description of the infection cycle, please contact help@nmpdr.org)

a. Shape:

Cocci 0.5-1.0 μm in diameter. Cells occur singly or in pairs. Division is in two planes, giving rise to clusters. Colonies are smooth, raised, glistening, circular, entire and translucent. Single colonies may obtain a size of 6-8 mm in diameter (4).

b. Picture:

SEM of Staphylococcus aureus
SEM of numerous clumps of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteria, commonly referred to by the acronym, MRSA (magnified 9560x), by Janice Carr, CDC

C. Genome Summary

1. Genome of Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus COL

a. Chromosome

i. Genbank Accession Number: NC_002951
ii. Size: 2,809,422 bp
iii. S. aureus COL is an early methicillin-resistant isolate (5).

b. Plasmid pT181

i. Genbank Accession Number: NC_006629
ii. Size: 4,440 bp



II. References

1.  Sanger Institute

2.  Holden MT, Feil EJ, Lindsay JA, Peacock SJ, Day NP, Enright MC, Foster TJ, Moore CE, Hurst L, Atkin R, Barron A, Bason N, Bentley SD, Chillingworth C, Chillingworth T, Churcher C, Clark L, Corton C, Cronin A, Doggett J, Dowd L, Feltwell T, Hance Z, Harris B, Hauser H, Holroyd S, Jagels K, James KD, Lennard N, Line A, Mayes R, Moule S, Mungall K, Ormond D, Quail MA, Rabbinowitsch E, Rutherford K, Sanders M, Sharp S, Simmonds M, Stevens K, Whitehead S, Barrell BG, Spratt BG, Parkhill J. (2004) Complete genomes of two clinical Staphylococcus aureus strains: evidence for the rapid evolution of virulence and drug resistance. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 101: 9786-91.

3.   http://textbookofbacteriology.net/staph.html


4.   Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th edition. John G. Holt, Noel R. Krieg, Peter H.A. Sneath, James T. Staley, and Stanley T. Williams, editors. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins, 1994, pp. 518.

5.   Gill SR, Fouts DE, Archer GL, Mongodin EF, Deboy RT, Ravel J, Paulsen IT, Kolonay JF, Brinkac L, Beanan M, Dodson RJ, Daugherty SC, Madupu R, Angiuoli SV, Durkin AS, Haft DH, Vamathevan J, Khouri H, Utterback T, Lee C, Dimitrov G, Jiang L, Qin H, Weidman J, Tran K, Kang K, Hance IR, Nelson KE, and Fraser CM. (2005) Insights on evolution of virulence and resistance from the complete genome analysis of an early methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strain and a biofilm-producing methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis strain. J. Bacteriol. 187: 2426-2438.

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Staphylococcus - Google News

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Infections due to Staphylococcus aureus bacterium aggravate neurodermatitis - News-Medical.net


Infections due to Staphylococcus aureus bacterium aggravate neurodermatitis
News-Medical.net
Because the skin and its function as a barrier are severely compromised in neurodermatitis patients, a large number of bacterial species are able to multiply - including the bacterium Staphylococcus aureus. Many patients have nearly 200-times as many S.

Infections due to the skin pathogen Staphylococcus aureus aggravate ... - HealthCanal.com


HealthCanal.com

Infections due to the skin pathogen Staphylococcus aureus aggravate ...
HealthCanal.com
The picture shows the skin of a patient with neurodermatitis (histological staining), which is covered with Staphylococcus aureus bacteria (dark dots on the surface and in the nick). (Picture: Y. Skabytska / Universit t T bingen) ...
Bacterial infections suppress protective immune response in neurodermatitisMedical Xpress

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31600 Pounds Of Gluten-Free Chicken Nuggets Recalled For Staphylococcal ... - The Consumerist


The Consumerist

31600 Pounds Of Gluten-Free Chicken Nuggets Recalled For Staphylococcal ...
The Consumerist
nugget Drop that nugget! The U.S. Department of Agriculture has announced a recall of 31,600 pounds of Bell & Evans gluten-free chicken nuggets that were shipped nationwide. Random testing in Colorado turned up contamination with Staphylococcal ...
Chicken Recalled for Possible Staphylococcal ContaminationWDEF News 12
Staphylococcal enterotoxin contamination prompts recall of gluten free chicken ...Outbreak News Today
31000 Pounds of Chicken Products RecalledWebMD
NBC26.tv -Tech Times -States Chronicle
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Staphylococcus aureus Gene Expression in a Rat Model of Infective Endocarditis - 7thSpace Interactive (press release)


Staphylococcus aureus Gene Expression in a Rat Model of Infective Endocarditis
7thSpace Interactive (press release)
Diabetes mellitus is a frequent underlying comorbidity in patients with Staphylococcus aureus endocarditis, and it represents a risk factor for complications and a negative outcome. The pathogenesis of staphylococcal endocardial infections in diabetic ...

LAST CLEANUP: 7 things to know when you wash down death scenes for a living - Arizona Republic


Arizona Republic

LAST CLEANUP: 7 things to know when you wash down death scenes for a living
Arizona Republic
Dale Cillian, owner of Biohazard Cleanup Company uses chemicals to fog a Glendale residence believed to be contaminated with Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, or MRSA, Wednesday, November 12th, 2014, in Glendale, Ariz. Cillian used a ...

Hospital 'grades' less than transparent - The Salinas Californian


The Salinas Californian

Hospital 'grades' less than transparent
The Salinas Californian
For Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, a serious staph infection better known as MRSA, NMC is right at the state average. I saw nothing that would warrant it an F grade. Here is how a little information, or misinformation, can be toxic to the ...

More than a taste test: just how hygienic is Mumbai's street food? - The Guardian


The Guardian

More than a taste test: just how hygienic is Mumbai's street food?
The Guardian
Bacteria transmitted in food, like coliform, E coli, salmonella, shigella, staphylococcus aureus and pseudomonas, are major causes of infections such as diarrhea, typhoid, food poisoning, urinary tract infections and pneumonia. These bacteria are found ...

Thanksgiving Turkey Might Be A Lifesaver, As Good Bacteria Supplies Vital ... - Medical Daily


Medical Daily

Thanksgiving Turkey Might Be A Lifesaver, As Good Bacteria Supplies Vital ...
Medical Daily
Source: Bennallack P, Burt S, Heder M, Robison R, Griffitts J. Characterization of a Novel Plasmid-Borne Thiopeptide Gene Cluster in Staphylococcus epidermidis Strain 115. Journal of Bacteriology. 2014. Comment. Share on facebook. 0. Share on twitter.

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Sporty double amputee hopes to inspire others - Stuff.co.nz


Stuff.co.nz

Sporty double amputee hopes to inspire others
Stuff.co.nz
She also contracted an infection, Staphylococcus aureus, which spread to her lungs and into her blood system, causing septic shock. Her father, Stuart Meehan, said the next hardest task was realising the dreams he had for her. "I think it's quite a ...
double amputee hopes to inspireThe Nelson Mail

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Wi-Fi Drug Delivery Uses Electronic Implants To Fight Infection - Medical Daily


Medical Daily

Wi-Fi Drug Delivery Uses Electronic Implants To Fight Infection
Medical Daily
Omenetto and his colleagues conducted a series of laboratory experiments using the living tissue of mice. Electronic devices were implanted into tissue infected with Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) where they administered two 10-minute heat ...
New Remote-Control Wireless Implants Dissolve in Your Body Once FinishedPopular Mechanics (blog)

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Staphylococcus genome sequence annotation status: click numbers to browse lists of genes or subsystems

Strain annotated in NMPDR Phenotype Genome size, bp Protein Encoding Genes (PEGs) Sort Named genes in subsystems Named genes not in subsystems Hypothetical genes in subsystems Hypothetical genes not in subsystems Subsystems RNAs
Staphylococcus aureus RF122 Bovine mastitis 2,742,531 2,523 1213(45.4%) 731(27.4%) 113(4.2%) 615(23.0%) 316 110
Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus COL methicillin resistant, hospital acquired (MRSA) 2,813,862 2,622 1247(44.8%) 718(25.8%) 98(3.5%) 722(25.9%) 330 108
Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus JH1 vancomycin susceptible, hospital acquired (MRSA) 2,879,577 2,685 1194(43.4%) 779(28.3%) 110(4.0%) 666(24.2%) 314 172
Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus JH9 vancomycin nonsusceptible, isogenic to JH1, hospital acquired (MRSA, VISA) 2,862,918 2,675 1202(43.9%) 773(28.2%) 108(3.9%) 657(24.0%) 316 165
Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus MRSA252 methicillin resistant, hospital acquired (MRSA) 2,902,619 2,663 1254(45.7%) 756(27.5%) 77(2.8%) 659(24.0%) 338 110
Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus MSSA476 methicillin susceptible, community acquired 2,820,454 2,609 1231(45.1%) 763(28.0%) 82(3.0%) 652(23.9%) 335 157
Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus MW2 methicillin resistant, community acquired (CA-MRSA) 2,820,462 2,644 1202(43.7%) 790(28.7%) 92(3.3%) 669(24.3%) 337 53
Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus Mu3   2,880,168 2,495 1094(43.7%) 768(30.7%) 90(3.6%) 549(22.0%) 296 108
Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus Mu50 methicillin and vancomycin resistant, hospital acquired (MRSA, VRSA) 2,903,147 2,771 1293(44.0%) 818(27.9%) 142(4.8%) 683(23.3%) 337 108
Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus N315 methicillin resistant, hospital acquired (MRSA) 2,839,469 2,648 1279(45.3%) 814(28.9%) 90(3.2%) 638(22.6%) 340 110
Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus NCTC 8325 lab strain 2,821,361 2,895 1222(39.9%) 832(27.1%) 110(3.6%) 901(29.4%) 320 109
Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus USA300 methicillin resistant, community acquired (CA-MRSA) 2,917,469 2,607 1223(44.1%) 833(30.1%) 86(3.1%) 629(22.7%) 316 105
Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus str. Newman   2,878,897 2,523 1077(42.6%) 782(30.9%) 71(2.8%) 599(23.7%) 293 109
Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 12228   2,564,615 2,472 1147(44.7%) 723(28.2%) 47(1.8%) 647(25.2%) 325 118
Staphylococcus epidermidis RP62A   2,643,840 2,529 1122(42.7%) 678(25.8%) 45(1.7%) 780(29.7%) 316 120
Staphylococcus haemolyticus JCSC1435   2,697,861 2,694 1164(41.8%) 773(27.7%) 53(1.9%) 796(28.6%) 323 111
Staphylococcus saprophyticus subsp. saprophyticus ATCC 15305   2,577,899 2,517 1140(43.7%) 765(29.3%) 42(1.6%) 662(25.4%) 327 122
Topic revision: r6 - 23 Aug 2008 - 11:08:12 - Bruce Parrello
 
Notice to NMPDR Users - The NMPDR BRC contract has ended and bacterial data from NMPDR has been transferred to PATRIC (http://www.patricbrc.org), a new consolidated BRC for all NIAID category A-C priority pathogenic bacteria. NMPDR was a collaboration among researchers from the Computation Institute of the University of Chicago, the Fellowship for Interpretation of Genomes (FIG), Argonne National Laboratory, and the National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA) at the University of Illinois. NMPDR is funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, under Contract HHSN266200400042C. Banner images are copyright © Dennis Kunkel.