Taxonomy: Bacteria; Firmicutes; Bacilli; Bacillales; Staphylococcaceae;

Staphylococcus

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Staphylococcus aureus

I. Organism Information

A. Taxonomy Information

1. Species

a. Staphylococcus aureus

i. Taxonomy ID: 1280

ii. Description:

Staphylococcus aureus is a Gram-positive pathogen that causes a wide range of diseases, and is becoming increasingly resistant to antibiotics (1). These resistant bacteria are called methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, or MRSA. S. aureus is responsible for a variety of ailments, including carbuncles, food poisoning, wound and medical device-related infections, bacteremia, necrotizing pneumonia, and endocarditis (2). S. aureus forms a fairly large yellow colony on rich medium and is hemolytic on blood agar. Staphylococci are facultative anaerobes that ferment glucose to lactate. The bacteria are catalase-positive and oxidase-negative. S. aureus can grow at a temperature range of 15 to 45 degrees and at NaCl concentrations as high as 15 percent. Almost all strains of S. aureus produce the enzyme coagulase. S. aureus should always be considered a potential pathogen (3).

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iii. Variants

Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus
Taxonomy ID: 46170

Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus COL
Taxonomy ID: 93062
Parent: Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus

Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus MRSA252
Taxonomy ID: 282458
Parent: Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus

Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus MSSA476
Taxonomy ID: 282459
Parent: Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus

Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus MW2
Taxonomy ID: 196620

Parent: Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus

Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus Mu50
Taxonomy ID: 158878
Parent: Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus

Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus N315
Taxonomy ID: 158879
Parent: Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus

B. Lifecycle and Morphology

1. (To contribute to this description of the infection cycle, please contact help@nmpdr.org)

a. Shape:

Cocci 0.5-1.0 μm in diameter. Cells occur singly or in pairs. Division is in two planes, giving rise to clusters. Colonies are smooth, raised, glistening, circular, entire and translucent. Single colonies may obtain a size of 6-8 mm in diameter (4).

b. Picture:

SEM of Staphylococcus aureus
SEM of numerous clumps of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteria, commonly referred to by the acronym, MRSA (magnified 9560x), by Janice Carr, CDC

C. Genome Summary

1. Genome of Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus COL

a. Chromosome

i. Genbank Accession Number: NC_002951
ii. Size: 2,809,422 bp
iii. S. aureus COL is an early methicillin-resistant isolate (5).

b. Plasmid pT181

i. Genbank Accession Number: NC_006629
ii. Size: 4,440 bp



II. References

1.  Sanger Institute

2.  Holden MT, Feil EJ, Lindsay JA, Peacock SJ, Day NP, Enright MC, Foster TJ, Moore CE, Hurst L, Atkin R, Barron A, Bason N, Bentley SD, Chillingworth C, Chillingworth T, Churcher C, Clark L, Corton C, Cronin A, Doggett J, Dowd L, Feltwell T, Hance Z, Harris B, Hauser H, Holroyd S, Jagels K, James KD, Lennard N, Line A, Mayes R, Moule S, Mungall K, Ormond D, Quail MA, Rabbinowitsch E, Rutherford K, Sanders M, Sharp S, Simmonds M, Stevens K, Whitehead S, Barrell BG, Spratt BG, Parkhill J. (2004) Complete genomes of two clinical Staphylococcus aureus strains: evidence for the rapid evolution of virulence and drug resistance. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 101: 9786-91.

3.   http://textbookofbacteriology.net/staph.html


4.   Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th edition. John G. Holt, Noel R. Krieg, Peter H.A. Sneath, James T. Staley, and Stanley T. Williams, editors. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins, 1994, pp. 518.

5.   Gill SR, Fouts DE, Archer GL, Mongodin EF, Deboy RT, Ravel J, Paulsen IT, Kolonay JF, Brinkac L, Beanan M, Dodson RJ, Daugherty SC, Madupu R, Angiuoli SV, Durkin AS, Haft DH, Vamathevan J, Khouri H, Utterback T, Lee C, Dimitrov G, Jiang L, Qin H, Weidman J, Tran K, Kang K, Hance IR, Nelson KE, and Fraser CM. (2005) Insights on evolution of virulence and resistance from the complete genome analysis of an early methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strain and a biofilm-producing methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis strain. J. Bacteriol. 187: 2426-2438.

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Staphylococcus - Google News

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6 things you should know about the Staphylococcus bacteria, a potential killer - South China Morning Post


South China Morning Post

6 things you should know about the Staphylococcus bacteria, a potential killer
South China Morning Post
Nearly a third of healthy adults have Staphylococcus bacteria (known as Staph for short) in their noses (usually temporarily) and about one in five have it on their skin. Typically, it causes no problems or only fairly minor skin infections. So why is ...
Australian couple's daughter was infected with Golden Staph and sent home from Hong KongDaily Mail

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Global Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA) Infections Market and Competitive Landscape Report ... - PR Newswire (press release)


Global Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA) Infections Market and Competitive Landscape Report ...
PR Newswire (press release)
Global Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus Market and Competitive Landscape Highlights 2016, provides comprehensive insights into Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus pipeline products, Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus ...

Staphylococcus aureus - Lincoln Journal Star


Lincoln Journal Star

Staphylococcus aureus
Lincoln Journal Star
Habitat: Lives on the human body, especially on the skin and in the nose. Also found in pimples on the face, boils or infected cuts on the hands; and also lives on animals. Common food sources: Unrefrigerated or improperly refrigerated meats, potato or ...

Global and China Staphylococcus Albus Market 2016: Industry Analysis, Growth, Size, Share, Demand & Forecast to ... - Medgadget.com (blog)


Medgadget.com (blog)

Global and China Staphylococcus Albus Market 2016: Industry Analysis, Growth, Size, Share, Demand & Forecast to ...
Medgadget.com (blog)
The report on the Global and China Staphylococcus Albus Market 2016 Industry has grown steadily in the past few years. But what does the future outlook of the Global and China Staphylococcus Albus Market 2016 Industry look like? The report on the ...

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Dandruff? Soon you'll be reaching for the scalp yoghurt - The Guardian


The Guardian

Dandruff? Soon you'll be reaching for the scalp yoghurt
The Guardian
The two most common bacteria living on the scalp were Propionibacterium and Staphylococcus. In the healthy group with little or no dandruff, Propionibacterium made up 71% of the scalp bacteria, with Staphylococcus accounting for only 26%. But in the ...
Got dandruff? The bacteria living on your head might be to blameNew Scientist
Bacteria Battle Can Lead to DandruffDiscovery News
The Bacteria On Your Scalp Could Be Key To Fighting DandruffPopular Science
Tech Times -The Scientist -Newsmax
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Superbug 'beginning of the end' - The Advertiser


The Advertiser

Superbug 'beginning of the end'
The Advertiser
Staphylococcus is not only potentially deadly but is becoming resistant to some strains of antibiotics. Colistin has been available since 1959 to treat infections caused by E. coli, salmonella and acinetobacter, which can cause pneumonia or serious ...
Why doctors are so worried about the new superbugToday.com
Nightmare superbug: What is it? And should you worry?Washington Post
Flinders University virologist Dr Peter Speck seeking federal drug research funding to fight anit-biotic resistant ...Herald Sun
NBCNews.com -Q13 FOX -Mic
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Internet Reading Club: May 2016 - The Atlantic


The Atlantic

Internet Reading Club: May 2016
The Atlantic
Staphylococcus and Pseudomonas have embarked on a journey within me, venturing ever deeper into the tributaries of my pulmonary arteries and veins to set up their sticky little camps. Even as I type this, armies of Staph are pitching tents along the ...

Targeting metals to fight pathogenic bacteria - Science Daily


EurekAlert

Targeting metals to fight pathogenic bacteria
Science Daily
Researchers at the Laboratory for Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS) at Ume University in Sweden participated in the discovery of a unique system of acquisition of essential metals in the pathogenic bacterium Staphylococcus aureus.
Pathogen uses promiscuous molecule to scavenge metalsThe Biological SCENE

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Narrow-Spectrum Antibiotic Could Spare the Microbiome - The Scientist


The Scientist

Narrow-Spectrum Antibiotic Could Spare the Microbiome
The Scientist
Staphylococcus aureus WIKIMEDIA, NATHAN READINGIt may be possible to treat a type of bacterial infection with an antibiotic without disturbing the normal microbiota, according to a study published today (May 9) in Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy.
Experimental Antibiotic Targets Staph Without Damaging Good Gut Bacteria In MiceMedical Daily

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Hong Kong health officials probe bacterial infections in babies born at private hospital - South China Morning Post


South China Morning Post

Hong Kong health officials probe bacterial infections in babies born at private hospital
South China Morning Post
Based on the latest information provided by the Matilda, the babies were well upon discharge and were diagnosed [with a Staphylococcus aureus] infection on subsequent follow-up with their paediatricians in the community, the department's spokesman ...

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Staphylococcus genome sequence annotation status: click numbers to browse lists of genes or subsystems

Strain annotated in NMPDR Phenotype Genome size, bp Protein Encoding Genes (PEGs) Sort Named genes in subsystems Named genes not in subsystems Hypothetical genes in subsystems Hypothetical genes not in subsystems Subsystems RNAs
Staphylococcus aureus RF122 Bovine mastitis 2,742,531 2,523 1213(45.4%) 731(27.4%) 113(4.2%) 615(23.0%) 316 110
Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus COL methicillin resistant, hospital acquired (MRSA) 2,813,862 2,622 1247(44.8%) 718(25.8%) 98(3.5%) 722(25.9%) 330 108
Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus JH1 vancomycin susceptible, hospital acquired (MRSA) 2,879,577 2,685 1194(43.4%) 779(28.3%) 110(4.0%) 666(24.2%) 314 172
Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus JH9 vancomycin nonsusceptible, isogenic to JH1, hospital acquired (MRSA, VISA) 2,862,918 2,675 1202(43.9%) 773(28.2%) 108(3.9%) 657(24.0%) 316 165
Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus MRSA252 methicillin resistant, hospital acquired (MRSA) 2,902,619 2,663 1254(45.7%) 756(27.5%) 77(2.8%) 659(24.0%) 338 110
Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus MSSA476 methicillin susceptible, community acquired 2,820,454 2,609 1231(45.1%) 763(28.0%) 82(3.0%) 652(23.9%) 335 157
Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus MW2 methicillin resistant, community acquired (CA-MRSA) 2,820,462 2,644 1202(43.7%) 790(28.7%) 92(3.3%) 669(24.3%) 337 53
Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus Mu3   2,880,168 2,495 1094(43.7%) 768(30.7%) 90(3.6%) 549(22.0%) 296 108
Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus Mu50 methicillin and vancomycin resistant, hospital acquired (MRSA, VRSA) 2,903,147 2,771 1293(44.0%) 818(27.9%) 142(4.8%) 683(23.3%) 337 108
Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus N315 methicillin resistant, hospital acquired (MRSA) 2,839,469 2,648 1279(45.3%) 814(28.9%) 90(3.2%) 638(22.6%) 340 110
Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus NCTC 8325 lab strain 2,821,361 2,895 1222(39.9%) 832(27.1%) 110(3.6%) 901(29.4%) 320 109
Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus USA300 methicillin resistant, community acquired (CA-MRSA) 2,917,469 2,607 1223(44.1%) 833(30.1%) 86(3.1%) 629(22.7%) 316 105
Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus str. Newman   2,878,897 2,523 1077(42.6%) 782(30.9%) 71(2.8%) 599(23.7%) 293 109
Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 12228   2,564,615 2,472 1147(44.7%) 723(28.2%) 47(1.8%) 647(25.2%) 325 118
Staphylococcus epidermidis RP62A   2,643,840 2,529 1122(42.7%) 678(25.8%) 45(1.7%) 780(29.7%) 316 120
Staphylococcus haemolyticus JCSC1435   2,697,861 2,694 1164(41.8%) 773(27.7%) 53(1.9%) 796(28.6%) 323 111
Staphylococcus saprophyticus subsp. saprophyticus ATCC 15305   2,577,899 2,517 1140(43.7%) 765(29.3%) 42(1.6%) 662(25.4%) 327 122
Topic revision: r6 - 23 Aug 2008 - 11:08:12 - Bruce Parrello
 
Notice to NMPDR Users - The NMPDR BRC contract has ended and bacterial data from NMPDR has been transferred to PATRIC (http://www.patricbrc.org), a new consolidated BRC for all NIAID category A-C priority pathogenic bacteria. NMPDR was a collaboration among researchers from the Computation Institute of the University of Chicago, the Fellowship for Interpretation of Genomes (FIG), Argonne National Laboratory, and the National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA) at the University of Illinois. NMPDR is funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, under Contract HHSN266200400042C. Banner images are copyright © Dennis Kunkel.