Taxonomy: Bacteria; Firmicutes; Bacilli; Bacillales; Staphylococcaceae;

Staphylococcus

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Staphylococcus aureus

I. Organism Information

A. Taxonomy Information

1. Species

a. Staphylococcus aureus

i. Taxonomy ID: 1280

ii. Description:

Staphylococcus aureus is a Gram-positive pathogen that causes a wide range of diseases, and is becoming increasingly resistant to antibiotics (1). These resistant bacteria are called methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, or MRSA. S. aureus is responsible for a variety of ailments, including carbuncles, food poisoning, wound and medical device-related infections, bacteremia, necrotizing pneumonia, and endocarditis (2). S. aureus forms a fairly large yellow colony on rich medium and is hemolytic on blood agar. Staphylococci are facultative anaerobes that ferment glucose to lactate. The bacteria are catalase-positive and oxidase-negative. S. aureus can grow at a temperature range of 15 to 45 degrees and at NaCl concentrations as high as 15 percent. Almost all strains of S. aureus produce the enzyme coagulase. S. aureus should always be considered a potential pathogen (3).

To contribute more information, please contact help@nmpdr.org

iii. Variants

Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus
Taxonomy ID: 46170

Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus COL
Taxonomy ID: 93062
Parent: Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus

Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus MRSA252
Taxonomy ID: 282458
Parent: Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus

Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus MSSA476
Taxonomy ID: 282459
Parent: Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus

Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus MW2
Taxonomy ID: 196620

Parent: Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus

Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus Mu50
Taxonomy ID: 158878
Parent: Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus

Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus N315
Taxonomy ID: 158879
Parent: Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus

B. Lifecycle and Morphology

1. (To contribute to this description of the infection cycle, please contact help@nmpdr.org)

a. Shape:

Cocci 0.5-1.0 μm in diameter. Cells occur singly or in pairs. Division is in two planes, giving rise to clusters. Colonies are smooth, raised, glistening, circular, entire and translucent. Single colonies may obtain a size of 6-8 mm in diameter (4).

b. Picture:

SEM of Staphylococcus aureus
SEM of numerous clumps of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteria, commonly referred to by the acronym, MRSA (magnified 9560x), by Janice Carr, CDC

C. Genome Summary

1. Genome of Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus COL

a. Chromosome

i. Genbank Accession Number: NC_002951
ii. Size: 2,809,422 bp
iii. S. aureus COL is an early methicillin-resistant isolate (5).

b. Plasmid pT181

i. Genbank Accession Number: NC_006629
ii. Size: 4,440 bp



II. References

1.  Sanger Institute

2.  Holden MT, Feil EJ, Lindsay JA, Peacock SJ, Day NP, Enright MC, Foster TJ, Moore CE, Hurst L, Atkin R, Barron A, Bason N, Bentley SD, Chillingworth C, Chillingworth T, Churcher C, Clark L, Corton C, Cronin A, Doggett J, Dowd L, Feltwell T, Hance Z, Harris B, Hauser H, Holroyd S, Jagels K, James KD, Lennard N, Line A, Mayes R, Moule S, Mungall K, Ormond D, Quail MA, Rabbinowitsch E, Rutherford K, Sanders M, Sharp S, Simmonds M, Stevens K, Whitehead S, Barrell BG, Spratt BG, Parkhill J. (2004) Complete genomes of two clinical Staphylococcus aureus strains: evidence for the rapid evolution of virulence and drug resistance. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 101: 9786-91.

3.   http://textbookofbacteriology.net/staph.html


4.   Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th edition. John G. Holt, Noel R. Krieg, Peter H.A. Sneath, James T. Staley, and Stanley T. Williams, editors. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins, 1994, pp. 518.

5.   Gill SR, Fouts DE, Archer GL, Mongodin EF, Deboy RT, Ravel J, Paulsen IT, Kolonay JF, Brinkac L, Beanan M, Dodson RJ, Daugherty SC, Madupu R, Angiuoli SV, Durkin AS, Haft DH, Vamathevan J, Khouri H, Utterback T, Lee C, Dimitrov G, Jiang L, Qin H, Weidman J, Tran K, Kang K, Hance IR, Nelson KE, and Fraser CM. (2005) Insights on evolution of virulence and resistance from the complete genome analysis of an early methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strain and a biofilm-producing methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis strain. J. Bacteriol. 187: 2426-2438.

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Staphylococcus - Google News

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KSU scientists discover proteins that may lead to Staphylococcus aureus ... - Outbreak News Today


Outbreak News Today

KSU scientists discover proteins that may lead to Staphylococcus aureus ...
Outbreak News Today
Two Kansas State University biochemists have discovered a family of proteins that could lead to better treatments for Staphylococcus aureus, a pathogenic bacterium that can cause more than 60,000 potentially life-threatening infections each year.
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Inactivation of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus by Ultrasound - Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine (subscription)


Inactivation of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus by Ultrasound
Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine (subscription)
Address correspondence to N zhet Cenk Sesal, PhD, Department of Biology, Arts and Science Faculty, Marmara University, Goztepe Campus, 34722 Istanbul, Turkey. E-mail: csesal@marmara.edu.tr ...

Violet LEDs sterilize antibiotic-resistant Staphylococcus-infected wounds - Laser Focus world


Laser Focus world

Violet LEDs sterilize antibiotic-resistant Staphylococcus-infected wounds
Laser Focus world
As noted in Tech-On!, a research group at Osaka City University (Osaka, Japan) has treated skin ulcers infected with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteria by combining two therapies: 1) photodynamic therapy (PDT) using light at a ...
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L'Alpette cheese recalled due to Staphylococcus poisoning risk - Outbreak News Today


Outbreak News Today

L'Alpette cheese recalled due to Staphylococcus poisoning risk
Outbreak News Today
Food contaminated with Staphylococcus toxin may not look or smell spoiled. The toxin produced by Staphylococcus bacteria is not easily destroyed at normal cooking temperatures. Common symptoms of Staphylococcus poisoning are nausea, vomiting, ...

Food Recall Warning - L'Alpette cheese recalled due to a toxin produced by ... - Canadian Food Inspection Agency (press release)


Food Poisoning Bulletin

Food Recall Warning - L'Alpette cheese recalled due to a toxin produced by ...
Canadian Food Inspection Agency (press release)
Ottawa, August 28, 2014 - Ferme Floralpe Inc. is recalling L'Alpette cheese from the marketplace because it may contain the toxin produced by Staphylococcus bacteria. Consumers should not consume the recalled product described below.
In Canada, Cheese Recalled for Staphylococcus ToxinFood Poisoning Bulletin
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Research and Markets: Hospital Acquired Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus ... - DigitalJournal.com


Research and Markets: Hospital Acquired Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus ...
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This report provides comprehensive information on the therapeutic development for Hospital Acquired Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA) Infections, complete with comparative analysis at various stages, therapeutics assessment by drug ...
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Abstract and Introduction - Medscape


Abstract and Introduction
Medscape
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has emerged as an important pathogen in the community within the last 10 15 years so-called community-associated MRSA (CA-MRSA). Outbreaks have been described among children in daycares, ...

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Livestock Workers May Carry Staph Bacteria from Pigs - Yahoo News


WRGB

Livestock Workers May Carry Staph Bacteria from Pigs
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About one-third of people in the general population carry the human-associated strain of Staphylococcus aureus in their noses at any given time, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. When the bacteria do cause an infection, it ...
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Taking a Health Hazard Home - New York Times


New York Times

Taking a Health Hazard Home
New York Times
Although the bacterium, Staphylococcus aureus, is common and does not always cause illness, it can contaminate food and give rise to skin infections and respiratory diseases. Its methicillin-resistant variation, known as MRSA, has wreaked havoc on ...
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Factory-Farm Workers Found to Carry High Levels of Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria - TakePart


Science News

Factory-Farm Workers Found to Carry High Levels of Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria
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... Bloomberg School of Public Health looked at something else that may end up in the noses of workers at hog farms for a study published last week in the journal Occupational and Environmental Medicine the bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, or staph.
Drug-resistant staph can cling to farm workers for daysScience News

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Staphylococcus genome sequence annotation status: click numbers to browse lists of genes or subsystems

Strain annotated in NMPDR Phenotype Genome size, bp Protein Encoding Genes (PEGs) Sort Named genes in subsystems Named genes not in subsystems Hypothetical genes in subsystems Hypothetical genes not in subsystems Subsystems RNAs
Staphylococcus aureus RF122 Bovine mastitis 2,742,531 2,523 1213(45.4%) 731(27.4%) 113(4.2%) 615(23.0%) 316 110
Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus COL methicillin resistant, hospital acquired (MRSA) 2,813,862 2,622 1247(44.8%) 718(25.8%) 98(3.5%) 722(25.9%) 330 108
Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus JH1 vancomycin susceptible, hospital acquired (MRSA) 2,879,577 2,685 1194(43.4%) 779(28.3%) 110(4.0%) 666(24.2%) 314 172
Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus JH9 vancomycin nonsusceptible, isogenic to JH1, hospital acquired (MRSA, VISA) 2,862,918 2,675 1202(43.9%) 773(28.2%) 108(3.9%) 657(24.0%) 316 165
Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus MRSA252 methicillin resistant, hospital acquired (MRSA) 2,902,619 2,663 1254(45.7%) 756(27.5%) 77(2.8%) 659(24.0%) 338 110
Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus MSSA476 methicillin susceptible, community acquired 2,820,454 2,609 1231(45.1%) 763(28.0%) 82(3.0%) 652(23.9%) 335 157
Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus MW2 methicillin resistant, community acquired (CA-MRSA) 2,820,462 2,644 1202(43.7%) 790(28.7%) 92(3.3%) 669(24.3%) 337 53
Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus Mu3   2,880,168 2,495 1094(43.7%) 768(30.7%) 90(3.6%) 549(22.0%) 296 108
Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus Mu50 methicillin and vancomycin resistant, hospital acquired (MRSA, VRSA) 2,903,147 2,771 1293(44.0%) 818(27.9%) 142(4.8%) 683(23.3%) 337 108
Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus N315 methicillin resistant, hospital acquired (MRSA) 2,839,469 2,648 1279(45.3%) 814(28.9%) 90(3.2%) 638(22.6%) 340 110
Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus NCTC 8325 lab strain 2,821,361 2,895 1222(39.9%) 832(27.1%) 110(3.6%) 901(29.4%) 320 109
Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus USA300 methicillin resistant, community acquired (CA-MRSA) 2,917,469 2,607 1223(44.1%) 833(30.1%) 86(3.1%) 629(22.7%) 316 105
Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus str. Newman   2,878,897 2,523 1077(42.6%) 782(30.9%) 71(2.8%) 599(23.7%) 293 109
Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 12228   2,564,615 2,472 1147(44.7%) 723(28.2%) 47(1.8%) 647(25.2%) 325 118
Staphylococcus epidermidis RP62A   2,643,840 2,529 1122(42.7%) 678(25.8%) 45(1.7%) 780(29.7%) 316 120
Staphylococcus haemolyticus JCSC1435   2,697,861 2,694 1164(41.8%) 773(27.7%) 53(1.9%) 796(28.6%) 323 111
Staphylococcus saprophyticus subsp. saprophyticus ATCC 15305   2,577,899 2,517 1140(43.7%) 765(29.3%) 42(1.6%) 662(25.4%) 327 122
Topic revision: r6 - 23 Aug 2008 - 11:08:12 - Bruce Parrello
 
Notice to NMPDR Users - The NMPDR BRC contract has ended and bacterial data from NMPDR has been transferred to PATRIC (http://www.patricbrc.org), a new consolidated BRC for all NIAID category A-C priority pathogenic bacteria. NMPDR was a collaboration among researchers from the Computation Institute of the University of Chicago, the Fellowship for Interpretation of Genomes (FIG), Argonne National Laboratory, and the National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA) at the University of Illinois. NMPDR is funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, under Contract HHSN266200400042C. Banner images are copyright © Dennis Kunkel.