Taxonomy: Bacteria; Firmicutes; Bacilli; Lactobacillales; Streptococcaceae;

Streptococcus

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Streptococcus

I. Organism Information

A. Taxonomy Information

1. Species

a. S. pyogenes

i. Taxonomy ID: 1314

ii. Description:

Streptococcus pyogenes, also known as Group A Streptococcus (GAS) is a Gram-positive, nonmotile, coccus that does not form spores. Because they divide in one plane, they occur in pairs or in chains of various lengths. GAS ferments glucose to lactate. GAS is a catalase-negative facultative anaerobe, and requires enriched medium containing blood in order to grow. GAS are shielded by a nonantigenic capsule composed of hyaluronic acid that surrounds the cell wall and is penetrated by the M protein. GAS exhibits beta (complete, clear) hemolysis on blood agar. (1)

To contribute a blurb on serotypes or handling the organism in healthcare or laboratory facilities, please contact help@nmpdr.org Your contribution will be credited with a byline.

iii. Variants

Streptococcus pyogenes serotype M1
Taxonomy ID: 301447

Streptococcus pyogenes serotype M2
Taxonomy ID: 404330

Streptococcus pyogenes serotype M3
Taxonomy ID: 301448

Streptococcus pyogenes serotype M4

Taxonomy ID: 404331

Streptococcus pyogenes serotype M5
Taxonomy ID: 301449

Streptococcus pyogenes serotype M6
Taxonomy ID: 301450

Streptococcus pyogenes serotype M12
Taxonomy ID: 342023

Streptococcus pyogenes serotype M18>
Taxonomy ID: 301451

Streptococcus pyogenes serotype M28
Taxonomy ID: 319700

b. S. pneumoniae

i. Taxonomy ID: 1313

ii. Description:

Streptococcus pneumoniae, also known as pneumococcus, is a Gram-positive, nonmotile coccus that does not form spores. Pneumococcus is naturally competent to take up extracellular DNA. Like other Streptococci, pneumococcus ferments glucose to lactate, is a catalase-negative facultative anaerobe, and requires enriched medium containing blood in order to grow. A noninflammatory polysaccharide capsule shields the cell wall, which is composed of of peptidoglycan with teichoic acid and lipoteichoic acid. Pneumococcus exhibits alpha (partial, green) hemolysis on blood agar, but switches to beta (complete, clear) hemolysis under anaerobic conditions. There are 90 distinct serotypes of pneumococcus, of which types 6, 14, 18, 19, and 23 are most prevalent. (prokaryotes)

To contribute a blurb on phenotypes or handling the organism in healthcare or laboratory facilities, please contact help@nmpdr.org Your contribution will be credited with a byline.

iii. Variants

Streptococcus pneumoniae R6
Taxonomy ID: 171101

Streptococcus pneumoniae TIGR4
Taxonomy ID: 170187

B. Lifecycle and Morphology

1. S. pyogenes

a. Shape:

Lancet-shaped (slightly pointed) cocci 0.5-1.2 μm in diameter. Cells occur in pairs and short chains. Division is in one plane. Colonies are smooth, raised, circular, entire, and spontaneously undergo a phase variation from opaque to transparent, or glossy to matt. Single colonies may obtain a size of 1 mm in diameter.

b. Picture:

SEM of streptococcus pyogenes
SEM of an ultra-thin section of two group A streptococci from a chain of cells. The septum between the two cells is clearly indicated by the light colored diagonal line in the center of the image. The bacterial chromosome is also clearly seen as the light staining material in the cell interior. Fibrils on the cell surface contain the type-specific M protein characteristic of S. pyogenes. (magnified 16000 x) By Maria Fazio, Rockefeller University

2. S. pneumoniae

a. Shape:

Lancet-shaped (slightly pointed) cocci 0.5-1.2 μm in diameter. Cells occur in pairs and short chains. Division is in one plane. Colonies are smooth, raised, circular, entire, and spontaneously undergo a phase variation from opaque to transparent, or glossy to matt. Single colonies may obtain a size of 1 mm in diameter.

b. Picture:

SEM of streptococcus pneumoniae
SEM a pair of encapsulated pneumococci, by Janice Carr, CDC

C. Genome Summary

1. Genome of Streptococcus pyogenes M1 GAS strain SF370

a. Chromosome

i. RefSeq Accession Number: NC_002737
ii. Size: 1,852,441 bp
iii. M1 serotype.

2. Genome of Streptococcus pyogenes MGAS5005

a. Chromosome

i. RefSeq Accession Number: NC_007297


ii. Size: 1,838,554 bp
iii. M1 serotype.

3. Genome of Streptococcus pyogenes MGAS10270

a. Chromosome

i. RefSeq Accession Number: NC_008022
ii. Size: 1,928,252 bp
iii. M2 serotype.

4. Genome of Streptococcus pyogenes MGAS315

a. Chromosome

i. RefSeq Accession Number: NC_004070
ii. Size: 1,900,521 bp
iii. M3 serotype.

5. Genome of Streptococcus pyogenes SSI-1

a. Chromosome

i. RefSeq Accession Number: NC_004606


ii. Size: 1,894,275 bp
iii. M3 serotype.

6. Genome of Streptococcus pyogenes MGAS10750

a. Chromosome

i. RefSeq Accession Number: NC_008024
ii. Size: 1,937,111 bp
iii. M4 serotype.

7. Genome of Streptococcus pyogenes Manfredo

a. Chromosome

i. RefSeq Accession Number: unavailable
ii. Size: 1,841,271 bp
iii. M5 serotype.

8. Genome of Streptococcus pyogenes MGAS10394

a. Chromosome

i. RefSeq Accession Number: NC_006086
ii. Size: 1,899,877 bp
iii. M6 serotype.

9. Genome of Streptococcus pyogenes MGAS2096

a. Chromosome

i. RefSeq Accession Number: NC_008023
ii. Size: 1,860,355 bp
iii. M12 serotype.

10. Genome of Streptococcus pyogenes MGAS9429

a. Chromosome

i. RefSeq Accession Number: NC_8021
ii. Size: 1,836,467 bp
iii. M12 serotype.

11. Genome of Streptococcus pyogenes MGAS8232

a. Chromosome

i. RefSeq Accession Number: NC_003485
ii. Size: 1,895,017 bp
iii. M18 serotype.

12. Genome of Streptococcus pyogenes MGAS6180

a. Chromosome

i. Genbank Accession Number: NC_007296
ii. Size: 1,897,573 bp
iii. M28 serotype.



II. References

1. http://textbookofbacteriology.net/streptococcus.html

2. http://bioresearch.ac.uk/browse/mesh/D013297.html

3. Ferretti JJ, McShan WM, Ajdic D, Savic DJ, Savic G, Lyon K, Primeaux C, Sezate S, Suvorov AN, Kenton S, Lai HS, Lin SP, Qian Y, Jia HG, Najar FZ, Ren Q, Zhu H, Song L, White J, Yuan X, Clifton SW, Roe BA, McLaughlin R. Complete genome sequence of an M1 strain of Streptococcus pyogenes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001 Apr 10;98(8):4658-63.

4. Banks DJ, Porcella SF, Barbian KD, Beres SB, Philips LE, Voyich JM, DeLeo FR, Martin JM, Somerville GA, Musser JM. Progress toward characterization of the group A Streptococcus metagenome: complete genome sequence of a macrolide-resistant serotype M6 strain. J Infect Dis. 2004 Aug 15;190(4):727-38. Epub 2004 Jul 20.

5. Beres SB, Sylva GL, Barbian KD, Lei B, Hoff JS, Mammarella ND, Liu MY, Smoot JC, Porcella SF, Parkins LD, Campbell DS, Smith TM, McCormick JK, Leung DY, Schlievert PM, Musser JM. Genome sequence of a serotype M3 strain of group A Streptococcus: phage-encoded toxins, the high-virulence phenotype, and clone emergence. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002 Jul 23;99(15):10078-83.

6. Smoot JC, Barbian KD, Van Gompel JJ, Smoot LM, Chaussee MS, Sylva GL, Sturdevant DE, Ricklefs SM, Porcella SF, Parkins LD, Beres SB, Campbell DS, Smith TM, Zhang Q, Kapur V, Daly JA, Veasy LG, Musser JM. Genome sequence and comparative microarray analysis of serotype M18 group A Streptococcus strains associated with acute rheumatic fever outbreaks. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002 Apr 2;99(7):4668-73.

7. Nakagawa I, Kurokawa K, Yamashita A, Nakata M, Tomiyasu Y, Okahashi N, Kawabata S, Yamazaki K, Shiba T, Yasunaga T, Hayashi H, Hattori M, Hamada S. Genome sequence of an M3 strain of Streptococcus pyogenes reveals a large-scale genomic rearrangement in invasive strains and new insights into phage evolution. Genome Res. 2003 Jun;13(6A):1042-55.


1. Hoskins J, Alborn WE Jr, Arnold J, Blaszczak LC, Burgett S, DeHoff BS, Estrem ST, Fritz L, Fu DJ, Fuller W, Geringer C, Gilmour R, Glass JS, Khoja H, Kraft AR, Lagace RE, LeBlanc DJ, Lee LN, Lefkowitz EJ, Lu J, Matsushima P, McAhren SM, McHenney M, McLeaster K, Mundy CW, Nicas TI, Norris FH, O'Gara M, Peery RB, Robertson GT, Rockey P, Sun PM, Winkler ME, Yang Y, Young-Bellido M, Zhao G, Zook CA, Baltz RH, Jaskunas SR, Rosteck PR Jr, Skatrud PL, Glass JI. Genome of the bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae strain R6. J Bacteriol. 2001 Oct;183(19):5709-17.

2. Tettelin H, Nelson KE, Paulsen IT, Eisen JA, Read TD, Peterson S, Heidelberg J, DeBoy RT, Haft DH, Dodson RJ, Durkin AS, Gwinn M, Kolonay JF, Nelson WC, Peterson JD, Umayam LA, White O, Salzberg SL, Lewis MR, Radune D, Holtzapple E, Khouri H, Wolf AM, Utterback TR, Hansen CL, McDonald LA, Feldblyum TV, Angiuoli S, Dickinson T, Hickey EK, Holt IE, Loftus BJ, Yang F, Smith HO, Venter JC, Dougherty BA, Morrison DA, Hollingshead SK, Fraser CM. Complete genome sequence of a virulent isolate of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Science. 2001 Jul 20;293(5529):498-506.

3. Oggioni MR, Iannelli F, Pozzi G. Characterization of cryptic plasmids pDP1 and pSMB1 of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Plasmid. 1999 Jan;41(1):70-2

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Streptococcus - Google News

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Streptococcus genome sequence annotation status: click numbers to browse lists of genes or subsystems

Strain annotated in NMPDR Serotype Genome size, bp Protein Encoding Genes (PEGs) Sort Named genes in subsystems Named genes not in subsystems Hypothetical genes in subsystems Hypothetical genes not in subsystems Subsystems RNAs
Streptococcus agalactiae 2603V/R   2,160,267 2,195 995(43.8%) 756(33.3%) 23(1.0%) 499(22.0%) 283 113
Streptococcus agalactiae A909   2,127,839 1,997 1003(47.4%) 719(33.9%) 21(1.0%) 375(17.7%) 286 121
Streptococcus agalactiae NEM316   2,211,485 2,132 1016(45.5%) 737(33.0%) 23(1.0%) 459(20.5%) 288 120
Streptococcus equi subsp. equi   2,253,793 2,030 820(38.8%) 895(42.3%) 20(0.9%) 379(17.9%) 255 104
Streptococcus gordonii str. Challis substr. CH1   2,196,662 2,045 779(36.8%) 863(40.8%) 31(1.5%) 443(20.9%) 217 74
Streptococcus mitis NCTC 12261   2,045,857 2,170 989(52.1%) 824(43.4%) 31(1.6%) 53(2.8%) 265 97
Streptococcus mutans UA159   2,030,921 1,973 912(43.9%) 711(34.2%) 24(1.2%) 431(20.7%) 286 96
Streptococcus pneumonia pneumoniae D39   2,049,276 2,162 832(37.3%) 898(40.2%) 24(1.1%) 478(21.4%) 243 70
Streptococcus pneumoniae 23F   2,221,315 1,898 846(43.0%) 790(40.1%) 24(1.2%) 309(15.7%) 260 97
Streptococcus pneumoniae CDC0288-04   2,049,808 2,144 737(32.9%) 993(44.3%) 22(1.0%) 488(21.8%) 207 96
Streptococcus pneumoniae CDC1087-00   2,187,960 2,230 796(34.3%) 1057(45.6%) 22(0.9%) 444(19.1%) 223 89
Streptococcus pneumoniae CDC1873-00   2,263,323 2,368 801(32.8%) 1026(42.0%) 25(1.0%) 593(24.3%) 224 77
Streptococcus pneumoniae CDC3059-06   2,292,125 2,352 793(32.5%) 1033(42.3%) 24(1.0%) 590(24.2%) 226 88
Streptococcus pneumoniae CGSP14   2,209,198 2,298 752(31.8%) 1023(43.2%) 22(0.9%) 571(24.1%) 210 70
Streptococcus pneumoniae Hungary19A-6   2,245,615 2,358 756(31.1%) 1044(43.0%) 22(0.9%) 606(25.0%) 207 70
Streptococcus pneumoniae INV104B   2,252,732 1,938 883(43.8%) 782(38.8%) 25(1.2%) 324(16.1%) 262 103
Streptococcus pneumoniae INV200   2,009,918 1,772 795(43.1%) 722(39.2%) 22(1.2%) 305(16.5%) 253 97
Streptococcus pneumoniae OXC141   2,219,459 1,861 889(45.6%) 781(40.1%) 24(1.2%) 254(13.0%) 260 128
Streptococcus pneumoniae R6 no capsule 2,038,615 2,047 985(44.2%) 755(33.9%) 31(1.4%) 457(20.5%) 292 92
Streptococcus pneumoniae SP11-BS70   2,059,769 2,171 791(35.8%) 914(41.3%) 23(1.0%) 483(21.8%) 221 40
Streptococcus pneumoniae SP14-BS69   2,146,293 2,469 856(34.1%) 1063(42.4%) 24(1.0%) 565(22.5%) 221 39
Streptococcus pneumoniae SP18-BS74   2,104,549 2,272 740(32.0%) 1025(44.4%) 22(1.0%) 524(22.7%) 207 39
Streptococcus pneumoniae SP19-BS75   2,104,549 2,209 807(35.9%) 962(42.8%) 25(1.1%) 454(20.2%) 222 39
Streptococcus pneumoniae SP195   2,196,854 2,307 740(31.0%) 1039(43.5%) 21(0.9%) 588(24.6%) 209 81
Streptococcus pneumoniae SP23-BS72   2,102,291 2,219 795(35.3%) 937(41.6%) 26(1.2%) 495(22.0%) 223 34
Streptococcus pneumoniae SP3-BS71   2,032,681 2,174 777(35.0%) 950(42.9%) 25(1.1%) 465(21.0%) 220 43
Streptococcus pneumoniae SP6-BS73   2,161,512 2,286 804(34.5%) 998(42.8%) 27(1.2%) 502(21.5%) 227 45
Streptococcus pneumoniae SP9-BS68   2,115,676 2,089 779(36.4%) 937(43.7%) 22(1.0%) 404(18.9%) 225 53
Streptococcus pneumoniae TIGR4 4 2,160,837 2,238 981(40.7%) 813(33.7%) 31(1.3%) 586(24.3%) 287 99
Streptococcus pyogenes M1 GAS M1 1,852,441 1,731 902(48.5%) 646(34.8%) 20(1.1%) 290(15.6%) 287 91
Streptococcus pyogenes M5 M5 1,863,186 1,871 932(48.6%) 634(33.1%) 20(1.0%) 330(17.2%) 287 96
Streptococcus pyogenes MGAS10270 M2 1,928,252 1,989 928(43.8%) 723(34.1%) 21(1.0%) 447(21.1%) 274 96
Streptococcus pyogenes MGAS10394 M6 1,899,877 1,889 917(47.4%) 678(35.0%) 20(1.0%) 320(16.5%) 283 99
Streptococcus pyogenes MGAS10750 M4 1,937,111 1,981 926(43.8%) 729(34.5%) 20(0.9%) 437(20.7%) 275 97
Streptococcus pyogenes MGAS2096 M12 1,860,355 1,900 957(46.8%) 699(34.2%) 20(1.0%) 369(18.0%) 275 96
Streptococcus pyogenes MGAS315 M3 1,900,521 1,890 899(44.5%) 713(35.3%) 20(1.0%) 387(19.2%) 285 98
Streptococcus pyogenes MGAS5005 M1 1,838,554 1,867 931(46.2%) 691(34.3%) 17(0.8%) 374(18.6%) 281 101
Streptococcus pyogenes MGAS6180 M28 1,897,573 1,896 929(45.7%) 687(33.8%) 18(0.9%) 397(19.5%) 281 98
Streptococcus pyogenes MGAS8232 M18 1,895,017 1,913 838(43.1%) 692(35.6%) 20(1.0%) 394(20.3%) 282 32
Streptococcus pyogenes MGAS9429 M12 1,836,467 1,879 915(45.0%) 688(33.9%) 20(1.0%) 409(20.1%) 274 100
Streptococcus pyogenes SSI-1 M3 1,894,275 1,912 883(43.7%) 704(34.9%) 20(1.0%) 412(20.4%) 285 86
Streptococcus sanguinis SK36   2,388,435 2,126 842(39.5%) 387(18.2%) 29(1.4%) 873(41.0%) 265 92
Streptococcus thermophilus CNRZ1066   1,796,226 1,917 836(42.7%) 673(34.3%) 22(1.1%) 429(21.9%) 280 100
Streptococcus thermophilus LMG 18311   1,796,846 1,891 827(42.8%) 667(34.5%) 21(1.1%) 418(21.6%) 275 100
Streptococcus uberis 0140J   1,852,352 1,720 834(46.5%) 711(39.6%) 17(0.9%) 233(13.0%) 254 98

Topic revision: r5 - 23 Aug 2008 - 11:08:35 - TWiki Guest
 
Notice to NMPDR Users - The NMPDR BRC contract has ended and bacterial data from NMPDR has been transferred to PATRIC (http://www.patricbrc.org), a new consolidated BRC for all NIAID category A-C priority pathogenic bacteria. NMPDR was a collaboration among researchers from the Computation Institute of the University of Chicago, the Fellowship for Interpretation of Genomes (FIG), Argonne National Laboratory, and the National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA) at the University of Illinois. NMPDR is funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, under Contract HHSN266200400042C. Banner images are copyright © Dennis Kunkel.